|Unravelling glutathione conjugate catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the role of glutathione/dipeptide transporters and vacuolar function in the release of volatile sulfur compounds 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol and 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one.
|Year of Publication
|Cordente, AG, Capone, DL, Curtin, CD
|Appl Microbiol Biotechnol
|Biotransformation, Glutathione, Membrane Transport Proteins, Monosaccharide Transport Proteins, Pentanones, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins, Sulfhydryl Compounds, Vacuoles
Sulfur-containing aroma compounds are key contributors to the flavour of a diverse range of foods and beverages, such as wine. The tropical fruit characters of Sauvignon Blanc wines are attributed to the presence of the aromatic thiols 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3-MH), its acetate ester 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3-MHA), and 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4-MMP). These aromatic thiols are not detectable in grape juice to any significant extent but are released by yeast during alcoholic fermentation. While the processes involved in the release of 3-MH and 4-MMP from their cysteinylated precursors have been studied extensively, degradation pathways for glutathione S-conjugates (GSH-3-MH and GSH-4-MMP) have not. In this study, a candidate gene approach was taken, focusing on genes known to play a role in glutathione and glutathione-S-conjugate turnover in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results confirm the role of Opt1p as the major transporter responsible for uptake of GSH-3-MH and GSH-4-MMP, and identify vacuolar Ecm38p as a key determinant of 3-MH release from GSH-3-MH. ECM38 was unimportant, on the other hand, for release of 4-MMP, and abolition of vacuolar biogenesis caused an increase in the amount of 4-MMP released. The alternative cytosolic glutathione degradation pathway was not involved in release of either thiol from their glutathionylated precursors. Finally, cycling of GSH-3-MH and/or its breakdown intermediates between the cytosol and the vacuole or extracellular space was implicated in modulation of 3-MH formation. Together, these results provide new targets for development of yeast strains that optimize release of these potent volatile sulfur compounds, and further our understanding of the processes involved in glutathione-S-conjugate turnover.
|Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.